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Emergency Issues - a numismatic reference. Officially sanctioned under emergency conditions; such as, political or financial destabilization, war, etc. Private or local business' issue legal tender.


Fantasy Issues - a numismatic reference. Coins or currency manufactored privately to be sold as a novelty item. It has no value as legal tender.
Field - a numismatic reference. The flat smooth surface of a coin, behind the design and lettering.
Filler - a numismatic reference. Slang for very low grade coin or currency. See Poor - Grading Coins or Grading Currency.
Fine or Fineness - represents the precious metal content of an item and illustraded as a decimal (.000) or as a fraction (000/0000).
FL - a gem reference. See Flawless.
Flat Struck - a numismatic reference. A term used to describe a striking anomoly, whereby the die doesn't completely fill during the striking process. Thus, the high points of the devices are not sharp and full, but flat and grainy.
Flawless - a gem reference. A gem clarity grade said to be without imperfections, as observed by an expert with under 15x magnification. It is without imperfections both internally and externally, including no cutting imperfections. See Grading Diamonds.
Foreign Exchange - the exchange of a country's current circulation legal tender for another country's legal tender (i.e. Pesos for Dollars).
Foxing - the soft, rough edges found on paper due to handling and age. It may include, but not limited to, tiny tears, nicks and discoloration.
Fractional Currency - official currency issued in fractional denominations of the primary currency unit (i.e. 25 cents). Usually, a short term solution for a metal shortage.
FX - abreviation. See Foreign Exchange.


German Silver - an amalgam of 55-65% copper, 18% nickel, 45-35% zinc. It can appear bright yellow when new, but rapidly fades with use to a dull white with a yellowish cast. German silver is typically used in the production of  flatware , holloware and some coinage.
Gold - a soft yellow metal used for producing coins, medals, jewelry and in industry manufactoring. Usually alloyed with other metals to create hardness and color applicable to its purpose. A precious metal.
Guilloche - a geometric design imprinted on paper as a security devise.


Hell Money - fantasy currency used in ceremonial burial rites typical of Eastern cultures.
High Relief - a die cutting design technique that gives a coin or medal a deeper depth of field. The field is a deeply curved or the devices built up to enhance the design detail.
Holes - a numismatic reference.
  • Coins or Medals - usually associated with drilling for jewelry purposes. Not to be confused with pits or pitting. Some coins or medals are minted with holes in the center as a design element.
  • Paper - associated with damage.
    • Pins and staples - Tiny symmetrically round holes usually found in pairs.
    • Worm - Irregular asymmetrically round holes. Yes, worms eat paper!
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